First submit your article to high PR directories like ezinearticles, and after approval of that, submit your same article in other directories you want. writing 100 articles and submitting them in 100 directories is big hard work.
Definitely, it will affected in your website and you may be penalize for it. Basically, you are thinking about duplicity and search engines don't like this type of activities. You can increase your backlinks but it will increase in quantity and not in quality and as per my experience quantity of backlinks doesn't matter for website.
Disregards the post that say that this will hart your rank in Google, but it not necessarily will improve it. The first article submitted website will get all the juice and the rest depends on their reputation but it will never get better the firstly submitted one. If you submit in the few places then it only will help but hundreds probably too much.
Life it's school, we graduate when we die
Submit unique content in relevant site and avoid duplication. Because you can get one back-link from one article. So try to submit fresh content on other site, it will help you to improve traffic on your site.